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Radar observations in proved that the planet has a 3: The eccentricity of Mercury's orbit makes this resonance stable—at perihelion, when the solar tide is strongest, the Sun is nearly still in Mercury's sky.
However, with noticeable eccentricity, like that of Mercury's orbit, the tidal force has a maximum at perihelion and thus stabilizes resonances, like 3: The original reason astronomers thought it was synchronously locked was that, whenever Mercury was best placed for observation, it was always nearly at the same point in its 3: This is because, coincidentally, Mercury's rotation period is almost exactly half of its synodic period with respect to Earth.
Due to Mercury's 3: Simulations indicate that the orbital eccentricity of Mercury varies chaotically from nearly zero circular to more than 0.
In , the French mathematician and astronomer Urbain Le Verrier reported that the slow precession of Mercury's orbit around the Sun could not be completely explained by Newtonian mechanics and perturbations by the known planets.
He suggested, among possible explanations, that another planet or perhaps instead a series of smaller 'corpuscules' might exist in an orbit even closer to the Sun than that of Mercury, to account for this perturbation.
The success of the search for Neptune based on its perturbations of the orbit of Uranus led astronomers to place faith in this possible explanation, and the hypothetical planet was named Vulcan , but no such planet was ever found.
The perihelion precession of Mercury is 5, arcseconds 1. Newtonian mechanics, taking into account all the effects from the other planets, predicts a precession of 5, arcseconds 1.
The effect is small: Similar, but much smaller, effects exist for other Solar System bodies: Filling in the values gives a result of 0. This is in close agreement with the accepted value of Mercury's perihelion advance of Mercury can be observed for only a brief period during either morning or evening twilight.
Mercury can, like several other planets and the brightest stars, be seen during a total solar eclipse.
Like the Moon and Venus, Mercury exhibits phases as seen from Earth. It is "new" at inferior conjunction and "full" at superior conjunction. The planet is rendered invisible from Earth on both of these occasions because of its being obscured by the Sun,  except its new phase during a transit.
Mercury is technically brightest as seen from Earth when it is at a full phase. Although Mercury is farthest from Earth when it is full, the greater illuminated area that is visible and the opposition brightness surge more than compensates for the distance.
Nonetheless, the brightest full phase appearance of Mercury is an essentially impossible time for practical observation, because of the extreme proximity of the Sun.
Mercury is best observed at the first and last quarter, although they are phases of lesser brightness. The first and last quarter phases occur at greatest elongation east and west of the Sun, respectively.
At both of these times Mercury's separation from the Sun ranges anywhere from Mercury can be easily seen from the tropics and subtropics more than from higher latitudes.
Viewed from low latitudes and at the right times of year, the ecliptic intersects the horizon at a steep angle. At middle latitudes , Mercury is more often and easily visible from the Southern Hemisphere than from the Northern.
This is because Mercury's maximum western elongation occurs only during early autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas its greatest eastern elongation happens only during late winter in the Southern Hemisphere.
An alternate method for viewing Mercury involves observing the planet during daylight hours when conditions are clear, ideally when it is at its greatest elongation.
Care must be taken to ensure the instrument isn't pointed directly towards the Sun because of the risk for eye damage. This method bypasses the limitation of twilight observing when the ecliptic is located at a low elevation e.
Ground-based telescope observations of Mercury reveal only an illuminated partial disk with limited detail. The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Mercury at all, due to safety procedures that prevent its pointing too close to the Sun.
Because the shift of 0. The earliest known recorded observations of Mercury are from the Mul. These observations were most likely made by an Assyrian astronomer around the 14th century BC.
Apin tablets is transcribed as Udu. Ud "the jumping planet". The Babylonians called the planet Nabu after the messenger to the gods in their mythology.
The Roman-Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy wrote about the possibility of planetary transits across the face of the Sun in his work Planetary Hypotheses.
He suggested that no transits had been observed either because planets such as Mercury were too small to see, or because the transits were too infrequent.
It was associated with the direction north and the phase of water in the Five Phases system of metaphysics. In India, the Kerala school astronomer Nilakantha Somayaji in the 15th century developed a partially heliocentric planetary model in which Mercury orbits the Sun, which in turn orbits Earth, similar to the Tychonic system later proposed by Tycho Brahe in the late 16th century.
The first telescopic observations of Mercury were made by Galileo in the early 17th century. Although he observed phases when he looked at Venus, his telescope was not powerful enough to see the phases of Mercury.
In , Pierre Gassendi made the first telescopic observations of the transit of a planet across the Sun when he saw a transit of Mercury predicted by Johannes Kepler.
In , Giovanni Zupi used a telescope to discover that the planet had orbital phases similar to Venus and the Moon.
The observation demonstrated conclusively that Mercury orbited around the Sun. A rare event in astronomy is the passage of one planet in front of another occultation , as seen from Earth.
Mercury and Venus occult each other every few centuries, and the event of May 28, is the only one historically observed, having been seen by John Bevis at the Royal Greenwich Observatory.
The difficulties inherent in observing Mercury mean that it has been far less studied than the other planets.
The effort to map the surface of Mercury was continued by Eugenios Antoniadi , who published a book in that included both maps and his own observations.
In June , Soviet scientists at the Institute of Radio-engineering and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences , led by Vladimir Kotelnikov , became the first to bounce a radar signal off Mercury and receive it, starting radar observations of the planet.
Dyce, using the meter Arecibo Observatory radio telescope in Puerto Rico , showed conclusively that the planet's rotational period was about 59 days.
If Mercury were tidally locked, its dark face would be extremely cold, but measurements of radio emission revealed that it was much hotter than expected.
Astronomers were reluctant to drop the synchronous rotation theory and proposed alternative mechanisms such as powerful heat-distributing winds to explain the observations.
Italian astronomer Giuseppe Colombo noted that the rotation value was about two-thirds of Mercury's orbital period, and proposed that the planet's orbital and rotational periods were locked into a 3: Instead, the astronomers saw the same features during every second orbit and recorded them, but disregarded those seen in the meantime, when Mercury's other face was toward the Sun, because the orbital geometry meant that these observations were made under poor viewing conditions.
Ground-based optical observations did not shed much further light on Mercury, but radio astronomers using interferometry at microwave wavelengths, a technique that enables removal of the solar radiation, were able to discern physical and chemical characteristics of the subsurface layers to a depth of several meters.
Moreover, recent technological advances have led to improved ground-based observations. In , high-resolution lucky imaging observations were conducted by the Mount Wilson Observatory 1.
They provided the first views that resolved surface features on the parts of Mercury that were not imaged in the Mariner 10 mission.
Reaching Mercury from Earth poses significant technical challenges, because it orbits so much closer to the Sun than Earth.
Therefore, the spacecraft must make a large change in velocity delta-v to enter a Hohmann transfer orbit that passes near Mercury, as compared to the delta-v required for other planetary missions.
The potential energy liberated by moving down the Sun's potential well becomes kinetic energy ; requiring another large delta-v change to do anything other than rapidly pass by Mercury.
To land safely or enter a stable orbit the spacecraft would rely entirely on rocket motors. Aerobraking is ruled out because Mercury has a negligible atmosphere.
A trip to Mercury requires more rocket fuel than that required to escape the Solar System completely.
As a result, only two space probes have visited it so far. The second close approach was primarily used for imaging, but at the third approach, extensive magnetic data were obtained.
The data revealed that the planet's magnetic field is much like Earth's, which deflects the solar wind around the planet. For many years after the Mariner 10 encounters, the origin of Mercury's magnetic field remained the subject of several competing theories.
On March 24, , just eight days after its final close approach, Mariner 10 ran out of fuel. Because its orbit could no longer be accurately controlled, mission controllers instructed the probe to shut down.
It made a fly-by of Earth in August , and of Venus in October and June to place it onto the correct trajectory to reach an orbit around Mercury.
The probe successfully entered an elliptical orbit around the planet on March 18, The first orbital image of Mercury was obtained on March 29, The probe finished a one-year mapping mission,  and then entered a one-year extended mission into The mission was designed to clear up six key issues: Mercury's high density, its geological history, the nature of its magnetic field , the structure of its core, whether it has ice at its poles, and where its tenuous atmosphere comes from.
To this end, the probe carried imaging devices that gathered much-higher-resolution images of much more of Mercury than Mariner 10 , assorted spectrometers to determine abundances of elements in the crust, and magnetometers and devices to measure velocities of charged particles.
Measurements of changes in the probe's orbital velocity were expected to be used to infer details of the planet's interior structure.
Both probes will operate for one terrestrial year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mercury disambiguation. Smallest and closest planet to the Sun in the Solar System.
Moment of inertia factor. The so-called "Weird Terrain" formed at the point antipodal to the Caloris Basin impact. Animation of Mercury's and Earth's revolution around the Sun.
Perihelion precession of Mercury. Size comparison with other Solar System objects. Mercury, Venus , Earth , Mars. Mars , Mercury Front: Moon , Pluto , Haumea.
Pluto's orbital eccentricity is greater than Mercury's. Pluto is also smaller than Mercury, but was thought to be larger until The "4" is a reference number in the Sumero-Akkadian transliteration system to designate which of several syllables a certain cuneiform sign is most likely designating.
Retrieved December 15, Retrieved June 12, Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved May 28, Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved April 3, Retrieved April 7, Orbital Elements", "Time Span: Sun" should be defaulted to.
Results are instantaneous osculating values at the precise J epoch. Kenneth; Archinal, Brent A. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. Journal of Geophysical Research: Figure 3 with the "TWO model"; Figure 5 for pole.
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Retrieved May 12, National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Planetary and Space Science. National Geographic Society, 2nd edition. Abstracts of the 25th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.
Time to rewrite the textbooks". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 21, Retrieved June 9, Retrieved April 11, Retrieved August 20, McElroy July 12, Mercury's crust is more analogous to a marbled cake than a layered cake.
Space Environment, Surface, and Interior, Chicago Retrieved December 22, Earth, Moon, and Planets. Journal of Geophysical Research.
Evidence for the Presence of Ferrous Iron". Lunar and Planetary Science. Space Environment, Surface, and Interior. Proceedings of a workshop held at The Field Museum.
Lunar and Planetary Science Institute. Retrieved September 28, Eruption conditions, magma volatile content, and implications for interior volatile abundances".
Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Retrieved April 4, Volcanic and tectonic implications". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 29, Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System 2nd ed.
Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System. Retrieved June 3, Retrieved May 23, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society.
University of Arizona Press. Retrieved May 18, Hahn December 10, Detection of Magnesium and Distribution of Constituents".
The New Solar System. The Solar System and Beyond 4th ed. Retrieved August 10, Archived from the original on March 31, Retrieved July 18, Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved April 12, Retrieved May 20, Cosmic Perspectives in Space Physics.
Astrophysics and Space Science Library. A Review of Astronomy and Allied Sciences. Goodsell Observatory of Carleton College.
Gravity Simulator charts 3. Retrieved October 22, M; Laskar, Jacques Le Verrier , in French , "Lettre de M.
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